Zinke, P.J. 1971. The effect of water well operation on riparian and phreatophyte vegetation in middle Carmel Valley. Unpbl. rept. to the Carmel Valley Property Owners Assn., Carmel Valley, Calif.
Wilfred M. Post*, William R. Emanuel*, Paul J. Zinke† & Alan G. Stangenberger† , 1982. Soil carbon pools and world life zones *Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830, USA
†Department of Forestry and Resource Management, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720. Nature 298, 156 - 159 (08 July 1982); doi:10.1038/298156a0
Abstract: Soil organic carbon in active exchange with the atmosphere constitutes approximately two-thirds of the carbon in terrestrial ecosystems1,2. The relatively large size and long residence time of this pool (of the order of 1,200 yr) make it a potentially important sink for carbon released to the atmosphere by fossil fuel combustion; however, in many cases, human disturbance has caused a decrease in soil carbon storage3,4. Various recent estimates place the global total of soil carbon between 700 (ref. 2) and 2,946 1015 g (ref. 5) with several intermediate estimates: 1,080 (ref. 1), 1,392 (ref. 6), 1,456 (ref. 3), and 2,070 1015g (ref. 7). Schlesinger's3 estimate seems to be based on the most extensive data base (200 observations, some of which are mean values derived from large studies in particular areas) and is widely cited in carbon cycle studies. In addition to estimating the world soil carbon pool, it is important to establish the relationships between the geographical distribution of soil carbon and climate, vegetation, human development and other factors as a basis for assessing the influence of changes in any of these factors on the global carbon cycle. Our analysis of 2,700 soil profiles, organized on a climate basis using the Holdridge life-zone classification system8, indicates relationships between soil carbon density and climate, a major soil forming factor. Soil carbon density generally increases with increasing precipitation, and there is an increase in soil carbon with decreasing temperature for any particular level of precipitation. When the potential evapotranspiration equals annual precipitation, soil carbon density9 is 10 kg m-2, exceptions to this being warm temperate and subtropical soils. Based on recent estimates of the areal extent of major ecosystem complexes9,10 which correspond well with climatic life zones, the global soil organic carbon pool is estimated to be 1,395 1015g.
Nitrogen Fixation by Ceanothus1
Kearney Foundation of Soil Science, University of California, Davis, California
2 Present address: School of Forestry, University of California, Berkeley, California.
3 Present address: Department of Soils and Plant Nutrition, University of California, Berkeley, California.
1 Received April 26, 1965. Plant Physiol. 1965 November; 40(6): 1045–1047.
VEGETATIONAL CHANGES IN YOSEMITE VALLEY
. Harold F. Heady and Paul J. Zinke, 1978.
. National Park Service Occasional Paper Number Five. Department of Forestry and Conservation University of California, Berkeley.
Soil and Nutrient Element Aspects of Sequoiadendron Giganteum. Paul J. Zinke, Alan G. Stangenberger, 1994.
Abstract: A century ago, John Muir (1894) observed that the present range of bigtree is limited to ridgetops at middle elevations in the Sierra Nevada, apparently due to soil conditions related to glaciation. This paper will examine the relations between the trees and associated soils. The elemental content of a 1200-year-old 200-ton tree was examined and compared with the storage in litter and soil on the site. Twenty-two percent of total site nitrogen was in the tree, along with 27 percent of calcium and approximately 40 percent of magnesium and potassium, and 82 percent of on-site carbon. Remaining proportions were mainly in soil, with less than 10 percent of any element in leaf litter. A major influence of old Sequoiadendron on the soil is maintenance of a high base element status due to high contents in foliage and twigs returned in contrast to lower amounts in associated conifer species. Extremes of percentile arrays of foliar element analyses are used to identify sites with possible limitations for Sequoiadendron. Several questions were raised by the topic of this paper. What are soil-related reasons for the present limited range of the species? What is the effect of long-lived trees on a soil? Soil factors may limit range or longevity of trees if essential elements become deficient or excessive on a site. This paper will present research data partially answering these questions. How the presence of a bigtree during more than a thousand years influences the soil and fertility elements, and how much is stored in the tree will be estimated by analyses of a tree which fell at U.C. Whitaker’s Forest, Tulare County, California in 1965. These data will be compared with those obtained from soils influenced by old bigtrees at several groves from Giant Forest to Merced grove, and by comparison with soil properties typical of other sites in Sierra mixed-conifer forests. The question of limits to the range of giant sequoia will be examined in terms of the soil conditions existing at sites with extremes of analytical values for foliar elements.